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A.O. Falun Dafa and Others v. the Republic of Moldova, No. 29458/15, ECtHR (Second Section), 29 June 2021


Banning of the symbol of a spiritual practice and dissolution of practicing organisations.

Normative references

Art. 9 ECHR
Art. 11 ECHR


The ban of the symbol of an organisation and its dissolution on the ground that it had a swastika as a symbol and that it propagated hatred and social unrest infringes freedom to manifest one’s religion or belief and freedom of association whenever such measures are not necessary in a democratic society because they do not correspond to a pressing social need.
(In the present case, involving two NGOs whose international symbol resembled a reversed swastika, the Court unanimously held that there has been a violation of Articles 9 and 11 of the Convention).